后缀-less含义和用法

汉:形容词后缀less意为“without”,表示否定意义的-less是个本族语派生后缀,原意为free from 或without。它主要加在名词后面,构成相应的形容词,意为without(无...的),lacking(缺乏...的),free from(没有...的)等;它也可以与某些动词结合,意为that never ~s(从不...的),that cannot be ~ed(不可...的)。


英:word-forming element meaning "lacking, cannot be, does not," from O.E. -leas, from leas "free (from), devoid (of), false, feigned," from P.Gmc. *lausaz (cf. Du. -loos, Ger. -los "-less," O.N. lauss "loose, free, vacant, dissolute," M.Du. los, Ger. los "loose, free," Goth. laus "empty, vain"). Related to loose and lease.

1.careless
adj.not taking care;thoughtless 不小心的,粗心的
Careless smokers throw their cigarette butts into the subway vent,blocking it up.
粗心的烟民把烟蒂扔进地铁的通风孔里,造成了堵塞。

2.fearless
adj.without fear 大胆的
Our fearless platoon sergeant led the attack and was the first one to be injured.
我们天不怕地不怕的副排长带头发起了这次进攻,他也是第一个负伤的。

3.headless
adj.inattentive 不注意的
A headless man haunts the castle.
一个无头幽灵常在城堡出现。

4.listless
adj.too tired to show interest or do anything 倦怠的,没精神的,冷淡的
Reacted to the latest crisis with listless resignation.
对最近的危机所作的反应是无精打采的放弃

5.homeless  [home 家;-less →]
  adj.无家可归的
  ex)A kind-hearted old man adopted the homeless child.一个好心的老头收集养了这个无家可归的小孩子。

6.rainless [rain n. 雨;-less →]
  adj.缺雨的;无雨的
  ex)The crops failed in the rainless year. 那年缺雨,农作物歉收。

7.ceaseless  [cease v.停止;-less →]
  adj.不停的;不绝的
  ex)We have made ceaseless efforts to improve service. 我们一直在努力改进我们的服务。

8.countless  [count v.计数;-less →]
  adj.无数的;不计其数的
  ex)There were so many people in the square,justl like the countless sands of the seashore. 广场上的人是那样多,就像海滩上多不胜数的沙粒。