后缀-ship

汉:  名词后缀-ship,总的来意思为“quality,condition,state,office,skill”,  名词后缀-ship跟“船”没有任何关系。它是个本族语派生后缀,一般与名词相结合构成抽象名词,表示the position or occupation of~(...职业,...行业),the quality or condition or being~(...的性质或状况),th act or skill of ~(...的行为或技能),the relation between~s(...间的关系)以及the number of ~s(...的数量)等意思。从中又细分出三个小意思:

英:O.E. -sciepe, Anglian -scip "state, condition of being," from P.Gmc. *-skapaz (cf. O.N. -skapr, O.Fris. -skip, Du. -schap, Ger. -schaft), from *skap- "to create, ordain, appoint," from PIE root *(s)kep- (see shape (v.)).

1.表示情况、状态、性质、关系
dictatorship
n.government by a dictator 独裁政府;独裁国家 dict=say
The U.S supported dictatorship of Penata during the Cold war.
冷战期间,美国支持佩纳特的独裁统治

friendship  友谊,友好      comradeship  同志关系
hardship    困难,受苦      felowship  伙伴关系

2.表示身分、职位、资格、权限
citizenship
n.being a citizen;rights and duties of a citize 公民的身分;公民的权利和义务
Dual citizenship is possible in most European coutries.
大多数欧洲国家都允许公民具有双重国籍
apprenticeship
n.being a leamer of trade who has agreed to work for a number of years in return for being taught 学徒身分;学徒年龄 ap=ad;prent=take
Each new employee will undergo a six-month apprenticeship.
每一个新雇员都将有六个月的学徒期

lordship 贵族身分    studentship  学生身分
doctorship 博士学位  sonship   儿子身分
heirship  继承权     colonelship 上校衔

3.表示技艺、技能、...法、...术
craftsmanship
skilled workmanship手艺,技能
Paul Revere's craftsmanship had made his silverware prized possessions.
保罗.里维尔的手艺十分精湛,他打造的银器成为珍贵的物品。